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UP Chakbandi Lekhpal Exam

Lekhpal is a clerical government post in Uttar Pradesh state, India. The duties are to maintain the Village revenue account and village land records. He is basically a village accountant officer in revenue administration at the village level.

The Uttar Pradesh Subordinate Services Selection Commission (UPSSSC) is the state organization authorized to conduct various examinations for appointments to various posts. The UPSSSC conducts various examinations within the state of Uttar Pradesh. The Uttar Pradesh Subordinate Services Selection Commission was constituted under the provisions of the U.P. Subordinate Services Selection Commission Act 2014 (often shortened to UPSSSC Act 2014). The current commission was formed after it was recognised that there was a need for a recruitment drive to attract people to Group ′C′ positions within the state departments dealing with administration.

Abbreviation

UPSSSC

Formation

November 1999

Type

Examination and selection board

Purpose

Examinations for Group ′C′ posts

Location

  • 3rd Floor, Pickup Bhawan, Vibhuti Khand, Gomtinagar, Lucknow,
    Uttar Pradesh–224010

Region served

Uttar Pradesh

Services

Examinations; Recruitment

Chief Executive Officer

Shri Santosh Kumar

Website

http://upsssc.gov.in

The following examinations are conducted by the U.P. Subordinate Services Selection Commission from time to time:

  1. Junior Assistant Examination- top class
  2. Conductor Examination.
  3. Stenographer Examination.
  4. Clerk
  5. Forest Guard
  6. Boring Technician
  7. Lekhpal
  8. Pharmacist
  9. Revenue Inspector
  10. Junior Engineer
  11. VDO
  12. Driver
  13. Tubwell Operator
  14. Lower Subordinate Services
  15. cane supervisor
  16. Computer Operator
  17. Assistant Statical Officer
  18. Revenue Inspector Exam
  19. Tire Inspector/Vidutkar/Mechanic Exam
  20. Yuva Vikas Adhikari Exam
  21. Boring Technician
  22. UDA/LDA
  23. Fire Guard
  24. Wild Life Guard
  25. Assistant Accountant & Auditor

History

The Pat­war sys­tem was first in­tro­duced in the In­dian sub­con­ti­nent, dur­ing the short, but event­ful rule of Sher Shah Suri, and was fur­ther en­hanced by Em­peror Akbar. The British colo­nial era made minor amend­ments but main­tained the sys­tem.

In 1814, leg­is­la­tion was en­acted re­quir­ing all vil­lages to main­tain an ac­coun­tant (ta­lati) as an of­fi­cial agent of the government. The Kulka­rni Watan was abol­ished in 1918 and paid ta­latis from all castes who were ap­pointed to the new of­fice of the Ta­lati. In some cases, the ta­latis were the op­pressed castes, and the abol­ish­ing of the Kulka­rni Watan sys­tem was viewed as a pro­gres­sive move.

The word is de­rived from the San­skrit root tal which means to ac­com­plish a vow, to es­tab­lish or to fix, havin the same mean­ing in the Marathi lan­guages of India. It is used to de­note the of­fice of the Ta­lati in rural parts of the In­dian states of Gu­jarat, Ma­ha­rash­tra and Kar­nataka. The of­fice and its holder are both called Ta­latis. Bear­ers of the of­fice have adopt this as their fam­ily last name. The du­ties of a Ta­lati in­clude main­tain­ing crop and land records (record of rights) of the vil­lage, col­lec­tion of tax rev­enue, col­lec­tion of ir­ri­ga­tion dues. The post of the Ta­lati re­placed that of the Kulka­rni which no longer ex­ists in Gu­jarat and Maharashtra. The du­ties of a ta­lati are per­formed in other states of India under a dif­fer­ent title, for ex­am­ple, the ta­lati is called a Pat­wari in Telan­gana. Orig­i­nally a land hold­ing clerk, the ta­lati is now a gov­ern­ment ap­pointed paid official. A Patil (Patel in the state of Gu­jarat) is from out­side the vil­lage and as­sists the Ta­lati in col­lect­ing rev­enue. It has been al­leged that the records main­tained by the ta­lati do not re­flect the ac­tual po­si­tion on the ground be­cause the ta­lati did not take into ac­count the tribal cus­tom of using the name of the adult male mem­ber of the fam­ily for land possession.

Amongst the ad­min­is­tra­tion, the ta­lati has the clos­est con­nec­tion with the vil­lage people. The ta­lati is gen­er­ally in charge of a group of vil­lages called a saza and they are re­quired to re­side in that saza un­less they get ap­proval from the Col­lec­tor to re­side out­side of the saza. How­ever the ma­jor­ity of the ta­latis were found to be in vi­o­la­tion of this rule. The ta­lati be­longs to the Brah­min caste in most cases and is gen­er­ally looked up to in the vil­lages be­cause of being a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the government.

Duties of the Talati

In 1814, du­ties of the ta­lati in­cluded pre­serv­ing vil­lage records, mon­i­tor­ing daily ac­tiv­i­ties, and gath­er­ing in­for­ma­tion about in­di­vid­u­als, in­clud­ing mukhis and vil­lage elites.

In 1882, the Gazetteer of the Bom­bay Pres­i­dency records the duty of the ta­lati as that of a vil­lage ac­coun­tant with a charge of about 8-10 vil­lages. The ta­lati's pay scale for this was £12 - £18 (Rs. 120 – Rs. 180) per year. The ta­lati was sup­posed to live any­where within these vil­lages and was sup­posed to visit each vil­lage every month to un­der­stand peo­ple's needs. The ta­lati then re­ported these needs to the sub-di­vi­sional man­ager in the sub-di­vi­sional of­fice. Ad­di­tion­ally, the Ta­lati was also re­quired to give each land­holder an ac­count show­ing the land­hold­ers dues. In Au­gust 1891 the pay of the ta­lati is recorded as being poor.

In 1884, El­phin­stone says that the du­ties of the ta­lati are ex­cel­lent in pro­mot­ing the ad­van­tage of the gov­ern­ment but they have a ten­dency to ex­tin­guish the au­thor­ity of the Patel and rec­om­mends that care should be taken to bring ta­lati's power within its nat­ural bounds to re­move in­ter­fer­ence from the du­ties of the Patel. The ap­point­ment of the ta­lati was viewed neg­a­tively by vil­lage chiefs who felt he as­sumed the char­ac­ter­is­tic of a rep­re­sen­ta­tive of the gov­ern­ment, re­ceiv­ing com­plaints. The ta­lati was ap­pointed when the Kulka­rni or Watan­dar, the hered­i­tary ac­coun­tant is ab­sent from the vil­lage or dis­trict scene. The ta­lati is also in­volved in col­lect­ing data re­lated to cen­sus. This is an an­nual ac­tiv­ity oc­cur­ring after the Mrig each year.

The ta­lati's peers are called the pat­wari in Ben­gal, Kar­nam in Andhra Pradesh and North­ern India, and Kanakku Pil­lai in Tamil vil­lage com­mu­nity: ex­am­ined with ref­er­ence to the phys­i­cal, ethno­graphic, and his­tor­i­cal con­di­tion of the provinces; chiefly on the basis of the rev­enue-set­tle­ment records and dis­trict manuals.

Parth

"Patwari" redirects here. For the language spoken in Pakistan, see Potwari.

See also: Zaildar, Lambardar, Munshi, and Kulkarni

Pat­wari or Patel are terms used in South Asia for a land record of­fi­cer at sub-di­vi­sion or Tehsil level. As the low­est state func­tionary in the Rev­enue Col­lec­tion sys­tem, his job en­com­passes vis­it­ing agri­cul­tural lands and main­tain­ing a record of own­er­ship and till­ing (gir­dawary). The Gov­ern­ment of India has de­vel­oped a soft­ware sys­tem called Pat­wary In­for­ma­tion Sys­tem (PATIS) which was de­ployed in at least two dis­tricts as of 2005 with de­ploy­ment at the Tehsil level underway. Pat­wary re­ports to Tehsil­dar or a chief clerk of Tehsils land records. The Gov­ern­ment of Pun­jab (Pak­istan) as well de­velop a Land Soft­ware with the name of Land Rev­enue Man­age­ment In­for­ma­tion Sys­tem (LRMIS).

The Pat­wari can wield sig­nif­i­cant power and in­flu­ence with even feu­dal lords seek­ing his favour. There have been cases of cor­rupt pat­waris es­cap­ing pun­ish­ment due to their po­si­tion and po­lit­i­cal connections.

Patwari

A pat­wari has three chief du­ties:

  1. Maintaining records of the crops grown at every harvest.
  2. Keeping records of rights up to date by the punctual record of mutations.
  3. The account of preparation of statistical returns embodying the information derived from the harvest inspections, register of mutation and record of rights.

Land and revenue terminology

Girdawary

Under the In­dian land record sys­tem, Gir­dawary is the record of land cul­ti­va­tion. It records crops and own­er­ship over the crops. The record is main­tained by the Pat­wari in Andhra Pradesh, by the Ta­lati in Ma­ha­rash­tra, Gu­jarat and Kar­nataka and other sim­i­lar title hold­ers in other states of India. The Gov­ern­ment of India has de­vel­oped a soft­ware sys­tem called Pat­wari In­for­ma­tion Sys­tem (PATIS) that in­cludes gir­dawary in its scope. PATIS was de­ployed in at least two dis­tricts as of 2005 with de­ploy­ment at the Tehsil level un­der­way.

Local land­lords must en­sure that Gir­dawary stays in their name, oth­er­wise; if some­one else is shown as cul­ti­vat­ing the land for an ex­tended pe­riod of time, they can claim pos­ses­sion of the land, re­sult­ing in a dis­pute of land ownership.

Jamabandi

jam­a­bandi is a term used in India mean­ing "RECORD OF RIGHTS" and refers to land records.

These records are doc­u­ments which are main­tained for each vil­lage within its Tehsil. It con­tains the name of the own­ers, an area of cul­ti­va­tion/land, shares of own­ers and other Rights. It is re­vised after a cer­tain pe­riod of time for e.g. every 5 years in the states such as Haryana, Pun­jab and Ra­jasthan.

After it is pre­pared by Pat­wari (Govt. of­fi­cial who keeps and main­tains RECORD OF RIGHTS) it is at­tested by Rev­enue Of­fi­cer of that di­vi­sion. Two copies of jam­a­bandi are made, one is kept in Gov­ern­ment's Record room and other is kept with Pat­wari. All changes in title/in­ter­ests of the rev­enue es­tate com­ing into the no­tice of Rev­enue Au­thor­i­ties are duly re­flected in the Jam­a­bandi ac­cord­ing to set pro­ce­dures.

In many states like Haryana, Hi­machal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Chhat­tis­garh, Mad­hya Pradesh, Ra­jasthan, Kar­nataka, Ker­ala, Tamil Nadu, and Pun­jab land records have been com­put­erised. In these states, Jam­a­bandi is pre­pared using soft­ware, and it is later checked by the pat­wari for er­rors. After it is cor­rected or ap­proved by the pat­wari, a final print­out is taken which is later at­tested by the Rev­enue of­fi­cer. In these states, Jam­a­ban­dis are also made avail­able on web­sites.

Lal Dora

Lal Dora, is a term that in­tro­duced by British Raj in 1908, is a red line drawn on the maps de­lin­eat­ing the vil­lage pop­u­la­tion from the nearby agri­cul­tural land in the rev­enue records and vil­lagers can build houses with­out build­ing by-laws with­out the manda­tory change in land use (CLU) per­mis­sion that would oth­er­wise be needed to con­vert agri­cul­tural land to com­mer­cial or res­i­den­tial purpose.

 

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