Computer Science

Computer Science

The Computer Science Computer Science & IT

Computer science is the study of algorithmic processes and computational machines. As a discipline, computer science spans a range of topics from theoretical studies of computation and information to the practical issues of implementing computing systems in hardware and software. Computer science addresses any computational problems, especially information processes, such as control, communication, perception, learning, and intelligence.

Computer Science is the study of computers and computational systems. Unlike electrical and computer engineers, computer scientists deal mostly with software and software systems; this includes their theory, design, development, and application.Its fields can be divided into theoretical and practical disciplines. For example, computational complexity theory describes the amount of resources required to solve computational problems, while computer graphics and computational geometry emphasizes more specific applications. Algorithmics have been called the heart of computer science. Programming language theory considers approaches to the description of computational processes, while software engineering involves the use of programming languages and complex systems. Computer architecture and computer engineering deals with construction of computer components and computer-controlled equipment. Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful, usable, and accessible. Artificial intelligence aims to synthesize goal-orientated processes such as problem-solving, decision-making, environmental adaptation, planning and learning found in humans and animals. 

History :

The earliest foundations of what would become computer science predate the invention of the modern digital computer. Machines for calculating fixed numerical tasks such as the abacus have existed since antiquity, aiding in computations such as multiplication and division. Algorithms for performing computations have existed since antiquity, even before the development of sophisticated computing equipment.

Wilhelm Schickard designed and constructed the first working mechanical calculator in 1623. In 1673, Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated a digital mechanical calculator, called the Stepped Reckoner. Leibniz may be considered the first computer scientist and information theorist, for, among other reasons, documenting the binary number system. In 1820, Thomas de Colmar launched the mechanical calculator industry. when he invented his simplified arithmometer, the first calculating machine strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment. Charles Babbage started the design of the first automatic mechanical calculator, his Difference Engine, in 1822, which eventually gave him the idea of the first programmable mechanical calculator, his Analytical Engine. He started developing this machine in 1834, and "in less than two years, he had sketched out many of the salient features of the modern computer". A crucial step was the adoption of a punched card system derived from the Jacquard loom" making it infinitely programmable. In 1843, during the translation of a French article on the Analytical Engine, Ada Lovelace wrote, in one of the many notes she included, an algorithm to compute the Bernoulli numbers, which is considered to be the first published algorithm ever specifically tailored for implementation on a computer. Around 1885, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulator, which used punched cards to process statistical information; eventually his company became part of IBM. Following Babbage, although unaware of his earlier work, Percy Ludgate in 1909 published the 2nd of the only two designs for mechanical analytical engines in history. In 1937, one hundred years after Babbage's impossible dream, Howard Aiken convinced IBM, which was making all kinds of punched card equipment and was also in the calculator business. to develop his giant programmable calculator, the ASCC/Harvard Mark I, based on Babbage's Analytical Engine, which itself used cards and a central computing unit. When the machine was finished, some hailed it as "Babbage's dream come true".

During the 1940s, with the development of new and more powerful computing machines such as the Atanasoff–Berry computer and ENIAC, the term computer came to refer to the machines rather than their human predecessors. As it became clear that computers could be used for more than just mathematical calculations, the field of computer science broadened to study computation in general. In 1945, IBM founded the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in New York City. The renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side was IBM's first laboratory devoted to pure science. The lab is the forerunner of IBM's Research Division, which today operates research facilities around the world. Ultimately, the close relationship between IBM and the university was instrumental in the emergence of a new scientific discipline, with Columbia offering one of the first academic-credit courses in computer science in 1946. Computer science began to be established as a distinct academic discipline in the 1950s and early 1960s. The world's first computer science degree program, the Cambridge Diploma in Computer Science, began at the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory in 1953. The first computer science department in the United States was formed at Purdue University in 1962. Since practical computers became available, many applications of computing have become distinct areas of study in their own rights.

Although many initially believed it was impossible that computers themselves could actually be a scientific field of study, in the late fifties it gradually became accepted among the greater academic population. It is the now well-known IBM brand that formed part of the computer science revolution during this time. IBM (short for International Business Machines) released the IBM 704 and later the IBM 709 computers, which were widely used during the exploration period of such devices. "Still, working with the IBM [computer] was frustrating […] if you had misplaced as much as one letter in one instruction, the program would crash, and you would have to start the whole process over again". During the late 1950s, the computer science discipline was very much in its developmental stages, and such issues were commonplace.

The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs, built the first working transistor, the point-contact transistor, in 1947. In 1953, the University of Manchester built the first transistorized computer, called the Transistor Computer.  However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications. The metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses. The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips, leading to what is known as the computer revolution or microcomputer revolution.

Time has seen significant improvements in the usability and effectiveness of computing technology. Modern society has seen a significant shift in the demographics which make use of computer technology; usage has shifted from being mostly exclusive to experts and professionals, to a near-ubiquitous user base. Initially, computers were quite costly, and some degree of humanitarian aid was needed for efficient use—in part from professional computer operators. As computer adoption became more widespread and affordable, less human assistance was needed for common usage.

Course Highlights

Computer Science Engineering Courses for all

B.Tech. (Bachelor of Technology - Computer Science & Engineering)

Duration: 4 years

Eligibility: 10+2 (Science stream) grades as per institution requirement

Admission: Entrance test

B.Sc. (Hons.) (Bachelor of Science in Computers)

Duration: 3 years

Eligibility: 10+2 (Science stream) grades as per institution requirement

Admission: Entrance test/ Cut-off

B.E. Computer Science (Bachelor of Electronics in Computer Science)

Duration: 4 years

Eligibility: 10+2 (Science stream) grades as per institution requirement

Admission: Entrance test/ Cut-off

M.Tech (Masters of Technology - Computer Science & Engineering)

Duration: 2 years

Eligibility: 10+2 (Science stream) grades as per institution requirement & B.Tech

Admission: Entrance test

M.Tech (Masters of Technology in Computer & Information Science)

Duration: 2 years

Eligibility: 10+2 (Science stream) grades as per institution requirement & Graduation

Admission: Entrance test

M.Sc. in Computer Science (Master of Science in Computer Science)

Duration: 2 years

Eligibility: Graduation honours degree with a minimum 2nd grade

Admission: Entrance test/Cut-off

M.Phil. in Computer Science (Masters of Philosophy in Computer Science)

Duration: 2 years

Eligibility: Candidates need to pass their graduation /PG (M.Sc./MCA/M.Tech./IT/Electronics) with a minimum of 60% aggregate

 Computer Science Engineering Courses available within  India

Coure Name

Duration

Eligibility

Admission

Fees

B.Tech. - Computer Science & Engineering



 

4 years


 

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off


 

Entrance test/Cut-off



 

INR 6 - 8 lakhs approx.

B.Sc. (Hons.) Computers


 

3 years

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off

Entrance test/Cut-off

INR 2 - 7 lakhs approx.

 B.E. Computer Science


 

4 years

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off

Entrance test/Cut-off

INR 25000 - 40000/-

M.Tech - Computer Science


 

2 years

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off

Entrance test/Cut-off

INR 1 lakh - 1.5 lakh

M.Tech - Computer & Information Science


 

2 years


 

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off


 

Entrance test/Cut-off


 

INR 1 lakh - 3 lakh

M.Sc. in Computer Science


 

2 years

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off

Entrance test/Cut-off

Upto INR 3 lakhs

M.Phil. in Computer Science


 

2 years

Science in 12th Standard & Cut-off

Entrance test/Cut-off

Upto INR 1.5 lakhs

 

 

 


 

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